Our Jeanneau had so many places to stow things it was easy to tuck things away to never see them again!
It took me several years to feel comfortable with my stowage system; since each boat's layout is different, what worked for me might not even be possible for another make's boat. However, Peter and I had some general "rules" that helped us look for things tossed away just to get underway.
First, food. I think these are the item(s) most moved about, stowed, and removed from storage. Something we absolutely have to have during a passage. So food was stowed beneath the saloon cushions, I could sit on the cabin sole and retrieve food no matter how rough the seas were. I had learned from several friends to keep several days worth of food in small compartments in the galley, and to go "shopping" in the deep compartments periodically. Most of the time it wasn't necessary, but when it was, keeping from being tossed about was welcome.
I used a copy of our boat drawing to label and identify the major compartments of the boat.
Port compartments, A-Z - PA, PB, PC, etc.
Starboard compartments, i.e, SA, SB, SC, etc.
I created an alphabetical list of all we carried (some things were generic, "filters", "linens"), with the code of the compartment where they were stored.
Some things were stowed depending on weight. Heavy low, light higher.
Spare parts were least accessible since they weren't needed very often. Emergency gear was most accessible. When on passages, for example, our ditch bag was at the bottom of the companionway.