I am also a veggie, and I think that it is the most logical diet for living at sea. Let's be frank, just because you are at sea, doesn't mean you can catch fish. You can go quite a while without seeing a living creature!
Having to rely on food that can spoil is also a no-go when you are so far from future provisions. Of course it's great to have fresh fruits and vegetables, you should not rely on them. Things spoil, get moldy. The only thing that happens to dried beans, rice, and other grains is the occasional weevil infestation. The best things to bring with you on your passage are oats (whole and rolled), rice (variety is key!), barley, beans (smaller means less cooking time and gassing time, lentils and moong are great options), sprouting is simple and a great way to have a fresh crunch, dried goods (potatoes, vegetables, fruits), nuts and seeds.
Things so consider... Coconut oil is amazing. It can be used in your cooking, and for your sunburn, as a lotion, and a hair conditioner. Everything on your boat should be utilitarian and multipurpose.
If you want fresh foods with you, consider ones that keep the longest. Gourds like pumpkin and squash (though easier to store in a can), potatoes, apples, limes, ginger, onions, and garlic.
Also, you can sprout your own garlic and onions in no time without any soil, and enjoy the greens.
If you want meat, think of how long it keeps and how it's stored. Consider the different options of ways to prepare it. Do you really want to eat fried summer sausage or spam every day?
Store things air-tight in different sizes and coloured containers, because labels can become wet or faded. You should be able to just see something in the back and know exactly what it is.
Bermuda Sol - First mate aboard Phileas Fogg