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Old 12-30-2010, 10:27 AM   #15
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Yeah, that's much cheaper than the ICOM unit. As far as I can tell the ICOM M505 AIS is the only transmit/receive VHF AIS combo on the market (I confirmed today that it does both) and it's only just been released but at 3x the price. West Marine don't have it in their catalog yet, but Whitworths do.

Just one question, since you have one. What's the GPS connection? I have seen a couple of AIS units that have a USB port to plug a mouse type GPS in, I haven't seen that in radios yet.
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Old 12-30-2010, 04:48 PM   #16
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Yeah, that's much cheaper than the ICOM unit. As far as I can tell the ICOM M505 AIS is the only transmit/receive VHF AIS combo on the market (I confirmed today that it does both) and it's only just been released but at 3x the price. West Marine don't have it in their catalog yet, but Whitworths do.

Just one question, since you have one. What's the GPS connection? I have seen a couple of AIS units that have a USB port to plug a mouse type GPS in, I haven't seen that in radios yet.
The GPS will be using a NMEA 0183 connection. A puck type GPS with such a slow speed connection (4800 baud) is hard to find. We bought:

Garmin 18x PC GPS Navigator

There are different types of Garmin 18X models the "PC" one has the RS 232 connector and also has a 12V cigarette lighter plug.

In a photo of it you'll see the DB9 pin which is commonly known as RS 232 connector. It is a good indicator that you'll get the NMEA 0183 output

needed.

Stay away from any 18X that says "USB" because it won't work/doesn't have the correct NMEA 0183 and/or won't have the right physical format of

DB9pin.

We purchased our Garmin via Amazon.com for the best price over a year ago. We paid $72.

Here's what Amazon has right now for it:

http://www.amazon.com/Garmin-18x-GPS.../dp/B0016NYHVS

This particular unit very quickly gets a GPS fix--a matter of seconds.
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Old 01-03-2011, 07:49 PM   #17
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I'm lusting after the Simrad device with its own screen for a bit over one boat buck ($1100).
I equipped my catamaran, which I mostly single-hand, with the Simrad AI 50 AIS transceiver. I am very happy with it, never turn it off when sailing. I had the Simrad supplied AIS aerial fitted on the second spreaders of my mast as they say a vertical separation of at least 2m from another VHF aerial (like my mast-head VHF aerial) is required. I can see AIS equipped boats up to 40M away!

Having sailed through the busy Bay of Biscay shipping lane having an AIS transceiver makes life a little more restless being able to "see" the big boys early on and knowing they can see you!

However, if any ship is forecasted by the AIS to come within my preset CPA (Closet Point of Approach) and I am not in a TSS I will call her up when they are 2M off and ask whether they are aware of me and what their actions will be. In most instances the reply is "Keep your course, we will change ours" - and even "After all, Wind before Steam" as one of them quoted!

But don't forget the smaller fishing boats and other sailing boats are not required to be AIS equipped so you still have to be vigilant.

As a side effect of having a transceiver, folks and friends at home can monitor your progress / whereabouts by looking at

http://www.marinetraffic.com/ais/
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Old 01-04-2011, 08:27 PM   #18
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Hi Multihullsailer,

That device must make life a lot easier. I hope more people have them like yachts and fisho's soon. I guess you can have a sleep at times and get fair warning about large ships. I looked at the link and think that it would be great if these ships had a trail so folks can see which areas to maybe go close to shore to avoid shipping or take another route. My wife and I will be fitting something similar before we go cruising.

Thanks for the review.
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Old 01-04-2011, 11:53 PM   #19
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I believe these systems are monitored, at least here in NZ so will certainly be used as evidence if anything happens. I agree that these are a boon , fantastic technology. I'm lusting after the Simrad device with its own screen for a bit over one boat buck ($1100). I collided with a ship last march. Slight damage, mainly to the pullpit. Maritime NZ investigated but because I could not prove my position they could not proceed with whatever it is they do if a ship hits a yacht.
Almost everyone has some type of chart plotter these days and all have a track function. That can tell where you were and pushing the MOB button will place a marker at the place where the incident occurred. Secondly, the pirates of the world will be especially appreciative that you have given them your exact location, tonnage, speed, etc. ;-)

Jim
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Old 01-05-2011, 07:21 AM   #20
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Secondly, the pirates of the world will be especially appreciative that you have given them your exact location, tonnage, speed, etc. ;-)
I hope and expect readers and contributors to these fori to be wise enough to press the OFF button when in waters infested by pirates. In fact, not so many yachts transit these waters compared with those sailing in the North Sea, Baltic, Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean, North American and Caribbean waters; waters where AIS will serve the function it was intended for, i.e. in assisting in collision avoidance. To cruisers in general, AIS is a great boon.

multihullsailor6 is right in raising the flag of caution though. As he put it, “smaller fishing boats and other sailing boats are not required to be AIS equipped so you still have to be vigilant”.

In fact, the INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA, require every vessel at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision. In other words, vigilance is always the order of the day as is the use of AIS if installed.

With regard to fishing vessels, EU regulations require all fishing vessels over 15m to be fitted with AIS as indicated below in the extract of Article 10 of Council Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009. This article is intended to permit control authorities to better check fishing vessel movements but will also benefit cruisers and others at sea.

Aye // Stephen

Extract from Reg. 1224/2009

Automatic identification system


1. In accordance with Annex II Part I point 3 of the Directive2002/59/EC, a fishing vessel exceeding 15 metres’ length overall shall be fitted with and maintain in operation an automatic identification system which meets the performance standards drawnup by the International Maritime Organisation according to chapter V, Regulation 19, section 2.4.5 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention.

2. Paragraph 1 shall apply:

A. as from 31 May 2014 to Community fishing vessels of15 metres’ length overall or more and less than 18 metres’length overall;

B. as from 31 May 2013 to Community fishing vessels of18 metres’ length overall or more and less than 24 metres’length overall;

C. as from 31 May 2012 to Community fishing vessels of24 metres’ length overall or more and less than 45 metres’length overall.
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Old 01-05-2011, 07:25 AM   #21
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Hi Jim, yeh pirates all over the place here in new zealand, trouble is they are all employed by the government! I'm just quoting what they told me when we tried to persue the ship for damages and blame. I let off a Spot but it didn't get to the bunker in the States till later. The ship was 40 nm away by that time, but the only ship in the area!

You can turn the "send" part of these devices off if you don't want anyone to know you are going by. I think its great tech , in bad visibility being able to locate ships would certainly make me feel more comfortable. I am not that experienced with radar but from researching I believe they can let one down when the weather is nasty.

I was using Seaclear and the charts I'd callibrated myself but mostly as a backup to paper charts. I guess in a courtroom my navigation skills would be decimated by a good lawyer. Having very little qualifications in that area. If I had an AIS transponder they would have on record my track and the ships. Being an independent source I guess the info would have more clout in the courtroom. I guess also that these ais devices could be used against a yacht also, say one is motoring directly into the wind when a collision occurs so its definitely a two edged sword.
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Old 01-05-2011, 08:29 PM   #22
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Extract from Reg. 1224/2009

Automatic identification system


1. In accordance with Annex II Part I point 3 of the Directive2002/59/EC, a fishing vessel exceeding 15 metres’ length overall shall be fitted with and maintain in operation an automatic identification system which meets the performance standards drawnup by the International Maritime Organisation according to chapter V, Regulation 19, section 2.4.5 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention.

2. Paragraph 1 shall apply:

A. as from 31 May 2014 to Community fishing vessels of15 metres’ length overall or more and less than 18 metres’length overall;

B. as from 31 May 2013 to Community fishing vessels of18 metres’ length overall or more and less than 24 metres’length overall;

C. as from 31 May 2012 to Community fishing vessels of24 metres’ length overall or more and less than 45 metres’length overall.
Hi Stephen,

Thanks for that info, though I am a bit unsure about the above length definitions! I take it that is the min and "more or less" max size.

As an "anedote" I was 25M off the Portguese coast sailing at the breath-taking speed of 2kts in daylight when, after checking around visually and seeing no other vessel and no other vessel being shown on my AIS I decided I could take a 45 minutes nap. So I set my alarm clock accordingly and put my head down for a well earned rest. When I woke up 45 min later I was approx. 200m away from a largish (say 25m) fishing vessel - still have NO clue where he came from! So it will be good (at least for me and my AIS) that even fishing vessels soon need to have to display their AIS position.
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Old 01-06-2011, 03:42 AM   #23
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Hi Stephen,

Thanks for that info, though I am a bit unsure about the above length definitions! I take it that is the min and "more or less" max size.

As an "anedote" I was 25M off the Portguese coast sailing at the breath-taking speed of 2kts in daylight when, after checking around visually and seeing no other vessel and no other vessel being shown on my AIS I decided I could take a 45 minutes nap. So I set my alarm clock accordingly and put my head down for a well earned rest. When I woke up 45 min later I was approx. 200m away from a largish (say 25m) fishing vessel - still have NO clue where he came from! So it will be good (at least for me and my AIS) that even fishing vessels soon need to have to display their AIS position.
It sounds like it would be a good idea for you to have an AIS transponder aboard to warn other vessels of your existence since you're not keeping a lookout. Sadly, it is not possible to properly keep watch while solo sailing unless you anchor for your crew rest. Even if hove-to, I can't imagine how a solo sailor gets a wink of sleep out there.
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Old 01-06-2011, 06:40 AM   #24
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Sadly, it is not possible to properly keep watch while solo sailing unless you anchor for your crew rest.
That, of course, is the dilemma of solo-sailing. There is no way one can follow the rules and sail solo for longer than 18 hours or so.

Regarding multihullsailorg's comments; I agree that the wording is far from perfect but it is cut and pasted from the regulation. You are quite right in your interpretation as the regulation is referring to vessels between the lengths of XX and YY.

Incidentally, and as another anecdote about the Portuguese coast, years ago, it must have been in the mid 1970's, I was on watch as 3rd officer on a ship on passage to Haifa from a northern European port. We were heading southwards off the Portuguese coast. The weather was fine and clear but windy - about force 6. On watch, apart from myself, was an able seaman as lookout and another on stand-by to take the helm if we needed to go to hand-steering. In other words, a well manned bridge in accordance with and, in fact, exceeding the required standards. One of the two bridge radars was in operation and the other on stand-by.

I had taken and worked out my morning sights, calculated the time of noon and was also keeping a look-out. I should add that I always did keep a look-out myself as it was my ticket on the line if anything went wrong, not the seaman's on look-out duties. When working out sights I would do a couple of calculation lines and then look around the horizon before returning to my sight-book. At the time of the incident I was doing nothing else but keeping a look-out and monitoring the vessels course. Suddenly, not 100 metres away, I spot a small, fishing boat. Fortunately, the boat was passing clear down our port side but it could have been a very different scenario.

Why did two pairs of eyes, mine and the able seaman's, not spot the boat earlier? The answer is simple, and this was a lesson for life for me, the boat was small, about 35 feet loa, and painted white. With wave crests breaking everywhere and the low height of the vessel, she was impossible to see at any distance.

Since that occurrence, I have been absolutely convinced that yachts need to do everything possible to be visible. What helps? My suggestions are:

1. Paint your boat in a bright colour but not white

2. Have coloured sails or, at least, a coloured band on your sail above the normal reefing levels. A bright coloured dodger and spray-hood also helps.

3. Carry the correct lights at night (I would also encourage the use of a strobe but that is contrary to the ColRegs)

4. Have a radar reflector rigged and, preferably, also have an active radar transponder

5. Have an AIS transponder and keep it switched on (except in pirate infested waters)

At sea, be seen to be safe!

Aye // Stephen
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Old 01-06-2011, 08:07 PM   #25
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Since that occurrence, I have been absolutely convinced that yachts need to do everything possible to be visible. What helps? My suggestions are:

1. Paint your boat in a bright colour but not white

2. Have coloured sails or, at least, a coloured band on your sail above the normal reefing levels. A bright coloured dodger and spray-hood also helps.

3. Carry the correct lights at night (I would also encourage the use of a strobe but that is contrary to the ColRegs)

4. Have a radar reflector rigged and, preferably, also have an active radar transponder

5. Have an AIS transponder and keep it switched on (except in pirate infested waters)

At sea, be seen to be safe!

Aye // Stephen
Stephen,

To be seen at sea by anyone - not only the big boys IF they are watching - is imperative for us sailors. All of your above 5 points are correct.

As to

points 1 and 2: I am planning to add "refective orange" to top third of my mast and well as my cabin top and, at a later stage, to my mainsail.

point 3: Equip your boat with LED navigational lights, apart from the better power drain aspect they seem to be brighter. There are also the 3M LED lights available.

I was told by an ex-merchant captain now sailor that a strobe light is now acceptable for offshore sailing according to newest COLREGS. Mine's installed but does not want to work and the replacement is not installed yet!!

point 4: Go for the best permanantly installed radar reflector, the Tri-Lens. Especially the "tube" type is useless, a sinking trimaran off Namibia saw the big container ship long before they picked him up on radar and had to VHF-talk his rescuers to him!

And if you go the active radar transponer route spend a little more and have a dual X and S band unit.

point 5: Yes, like me!

Regards from winter- warm (19*C) Gibraltar

Roger
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Old 01-07-2011, 06:17 AM   #26
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Roger,

Well done for making your craft as visible as possible!

A quirk of fate that we both are in the same part of the world, so I am pleased to hear of the balmy weather at the other end of the Iberian peninsula. Here, in Galacia, we are experiencing usual winter weather for the area, i.e. cool and wet, wet, wet and wet!

Another quirk of fate is that you mention Namibia, where I used to live albeit in Windhoek and not on the coast. I have, however, sailed a lot in merchant ships as well as fisheries protection vessels in that area and am not surprised to hear of the trimaran / container-ship issue as major refraction can occur in there at some times of year. I remember once, approaching from the north, seeing Cape Columbine light and hearing Cape Town Radio, based at Milnerton, when still some 200 NM from the Cape. Light is a form of electro-magnetic wave as are radar and radio signals thus radar and radio is influenced in a similar way. In radar speak, this is called super-refraction, trapping or ducting.

Super-Refractionis a result of the vertical distributions of temperature, moisture, and pressure causing the radar waves to bend more toward the surface of Earth than under normal conditions. As the refractivity gradient continues to decrease, the wave path’s curve will approach the radius of curvature of the earth. Such conditions can extend radar coverage up to 50% above normal.

Trapping occurs when the radius of curvature for the wave becomes smaller than Earth’s. Waves may then become trapped between two, i.e. the Earth’s surface and the negative gradient causing the downward refraction.

Trapping produces the greatest extremes in radar performance and can significantly extend radar ranges. Radar waves refracting sharply downwards, then reflecting off of Earth’s surface, may travel distances well beyond normal. Trapping can occur between the surface and an overlying region of the atmosphere with faster speed characteristics. It can also occur between two layers of the atmosphere that have different characteristics. This is known as an elevated duct.

Trapping is caused by strong low level inversions (temperature increases with height). It can also occur when a strong cap (EML) of warm and dry air exists in the lower troposphere above very moist air. When this happens it causes the radar to be able to detect objects at much further distances than normal. However, it also increases ground clutter as the radar beam remains closer to the earth's surface for a greater distance and can even bend into the earth's surface. It is more common in the morning hours since this time of the day experiences the strongest low-level inversions due to cooling of earth's surface through longwave radiation emission.

The disadvantages of trapping is the increase of ground clutter and increased anomalous propagation which can result in a small target disappearing in the clutter. This may have been the case when the container vessel failed to observe the yacht on their radar.

I agree completely regarding the radar transponder - go for the dual band type. No question about it!

With respect to LED lights, the important issue is that they should be approved by an appropriate body. I have, however, heard that they dim with time so keep an eye on them to ensure they continue to function at maximum brightness.

I have not heard anything about new COLREGS coming into force but the current ones certainly do not permit strobe lights. I would welcome a rethink on this issue by IMO but the current situation is well described in rule 36....

Quote:

If necessary to attract the attention of another vessel, any vessel may make light or sound signals that cannot be mistaken for any signal authorized elsewhere in these Rules, or may direct the beam of her searchlight in the direction of the danger, in such a way as not to embarrass any vessel Any light to attract the attention of another vessel shall be such that it cannot be mistaken for any aid to navigation. For the purpose of this Rule the use of high intensity intermittent or revolving lights, such as strobe lights, shall be avoided.
All the above is a little off the AIS topic but, I believe, important and thereby warranted.

Aye // Stephen
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Old 01-07-2011, 08:25 AM   #27
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Since that occurrence, I have been absolutely convinced that yachts need to do everything possible to be visible. What helps? My suggestions are:

1. Paint your boat in a bright colour but not white

2. Have coloured sails or, at least, a coloured band on your sail above the normal reefing levels. A bright coloured dodger and spray-hood also helps.

3. Carry the correct lights at night (I would also encourage the use of a strobe but that is contrary to the ColRegs)

4. Have a radar reflector rigged and, preferably, also have an active radar transponder

5. Have an AIS transponder and keep it switched on (except in pirate infested waters)

At sea, be seen to be safe!

Aye // Stephen
Hi Stephen,

Absolutely spot on! Could not agree more! Returning a MacIntosh 47 to Hong Kong from the Philippines after the South China Sea Race - still a 100 odd NM to go in very bad weather, big seas, alone at the helm, most of the crew laid low and sick. Radar not functioning - steaming light on, together with mast top tri-light. Motor-sailing with one reef in the main. Visibility maybe 1/4 mile - then ran into Hong Kong's fishing fleet - linked in pairs running parallel trawling a single net. I never saw the first two until they fired a flare! Obviously they had seen me and decided I should be warned. I had enough time to turn and avoid being trapped.

Richard
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Old 01-07-2011, 07:37 PM   #28
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Hi Stephen,

Absolutely spot on! Could not agree more! Returning a MacIntosh 47 to Hong Kong from the Philippines after the South China Sea Race - still a 100 odd NM to go in very bad weather, big seas, alone at the helm, most of the crew laid low and sick. Radar not functioning - steaming light on, together with mast top tri-light. Motor-sailing with one reef in the main. Visibility maybe 1/4 mile - then ran into Hong Kong's fishing fleet - linked in pairs running parallel trawling a single net. I never saw the first two until they fired a flare! Obviously they had seen me and decided I should be warned. I had enough time to turn and avoid being trapped.

Richard
That situation report (which is quite scary but well known) reminds me that, though I do have an AIS transceiver but no radar on board, I also have an oldish Lo-Kata Watchman installed which is supposed to warn me when hit by a radar transmission after which you can take part of the unit on deck and find the direction of the radar source. Great for off-shore but not much use in coastal sailing with many fishing boats or close to a shipping highway. The French have a modern version available called "Mer Veille" which is also available in the United States called .........? which indicates the quarter on which the radar beam was received. Met a French single handed sailor who was very happy with his French unit. Anybody have experience with such a radar warner?
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