The length of the boat is more an issue of comfort than suitability. A good 30' voyaging boat, rigged for offshore work is better than a 50' boat designed for day sailing inshore, being pressed into offshore service.
Take a look, for instance, at Bill Shaw's Pearson 30. It's a sturdy little craft which will take you around the world if you prepare it well. There are plenty available, see here:
Pearson 303 boats for sale - YachtWorld
Also, look here at some videos of Pearson 30s.
The Pearson is one of many great, small cruising boats that will take you from Florida, through the Keys and on to The Bahamas and the Caribbean Sea.
30' boats can, and do, go anywhere. The smaller the boat however, the less space there is aboard for creature comforts. But, the smaller the boat, the less expensive maintenance becomes. Keep us posted on your progress and welcome to the board.