I am also green, but already figured out that what you ask is not a matter of two sentences, but a neverending quest.
An example: I have recently seen a discussion where someone asked if a particular boat is a catamaran or a X I have never heard about before. I forgot the word for X, it was something like tube hull. And then some naval architects have debated the issue lenghtily.
I suggest wikipedia (starting at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigging
seems obvious), and Surveyors Lexicon at http://www.surveyorslexicon.com/index.php
Yeah, you are about to learn a whole new language.
And if you ask specific questions (e.g. is clutter a hullform or a sailplan), I am sure that those who know more than me will happily answer.